There are certainly cruises from America to Asia, you'll need to get to Los Angeles or San Francisco but from there you can get to China (and from there you can get a train or ferry to most places -- although sadly not the Philippines, which reminds me I meant to ask a question about that).
For example Princess Cruises Voyage Number H419A (can't link directly to the page but you should be able to search for that) goes from LA departing April 3 and arrives in Shanghai on April 25. It calls at Honolulu (April 8), Guam (April 17), Taipei (April 21), Okinawa (April 23). I don't think it runs often, maybe once a year, but it's definitely there. I've seen other similar cruises but they too don't run often -- a travel agent should be able to help.
Alternatively you could go on a cargo cruise, here's a link for West Coast USA to Asia, they claim they run every month -- however that site looks suspiciously like a reseller and they may not actually have what they claim.
Finally, if time and money isn't an issue you could do it in the other direction, New York to Southamptom on the Queen Mary 2. Take the train or ferry to Europe, then train across Europe to Asia.