A door stop alarm is in fact a good precaution against unwanted intruders (in case that you are traveling, NOT for home) and I do not share the pessimism of the other answers because there are several good reasons for using it.
The intruder causes the alarm for a reason: He wants to intrude while you asleep. In sleep, you are helpless and immobile. A thief can easily steal something, a robber or worse can easily overpower you. Even if you wake up ("Hmm, whats going on ?") you are disoriented, you need several seconds to clean your mind and understand the situation. Even then if you understand that someone is in your room, most people cannot act in full defense because they are under shock.
In fact, robbers use exactly a blitz attack on the victim because they know this.
It does not matter that the door stop cannot hold out for long, this is not the purpose of the device. It matters that really every second gives YOU an advantage and the INTRUDER a disadvantage.
Advantage for you: Every second wakes you more up. Your body is alerted and ready for fight/flight. You can easily see in the dark, the intruder not (in case the floor is lighted). The deafening sound masks what are you doing. And very important: You can move.
You can throw yourself against the door, barricade it, search your pepper spray or flee
through the window if necessary (ok, not on the 3rd floor).
Disadvantage for the intruder: He was prepared to follow his plan. The alarm and resistance will surprise him, give you precious seconds because he needs to adapt his plan
(In reality, thieves will almost always give up at that point and run). He cannot see you, he does not know what are you doing and where you are. Attention is raised, he takes the risk that every moment he will be witnessed or attacked.
There are really only two reasons for the intruder to continue after raising the alarm:
a) He/She knows that noone will be alerted (no persons or persons too far away) or that noone cares (fear, bad neighborhood, being a despised person, violent country) and
b) that they use violence to get what they want.
In the majority of cases it is not fulfilled because thievery/burglary is much more common than robbery/assault and therefore using the door stop is preferable. Even in the robbery case you have a possible option of escape through the window.
I agree that an armed robbery without escape possibility only leaves the option to give up your possessions as fast as possible. But this is really the rarest case.