Visa requirements will depend on your citizenship. You can find the specifics on the website of the Turkish Ministry of Foreign Affairs. If your passport allows you to enter Turkey visa free or get a visa-on-arrival anyway, the Schengen visa won't make a difference.
However, if you would normally need a regular visa and hoped to get a Turkish e-visa/sticker on arrival on the basis of your Schengen visa, I don't think it will work. With a single entry visa, once you have an exit stamp from a Schengen country, you cannot enter the area again so I doubt it would qualify as a “valid Schengen visa” for the Turkish authorities.
A related question has been asked before regarding Bulgaria (Duration of Schengen visa while travelling to non Schengen areas which allow Schengen visa) but unfortunately nobody has been able to provide definitive information.