FlightStats gives code-share information for any flight.
Looking up a flight number on that site gives a listing of its codesahres, among other flight information. For example, if you enter AC (Air Canada) 8975 on Dec-04-2015 into the Flight Status box, click Search, and then scroll down to the "AC 8975 Flight Information" box, you see an entry saying:
Codeshares: This flight marketed as a codeshare flight by the following airlines:
(LX) SWISS 4688
(LH) Lufthansa 6692
(CA) Air China 7459
Unfortunately, the site only allows flights to be searched up to a few days ahead. Thus you won't be able to look for flights on the day you want to travel (unless you're planning a last-minute trip). But looking for the same flight number within a range of days (yesterday, today, tomorrow, etc., preferably including the day of the week on which you want to travel) should give a sense of which airlines are likely to code-share the flight. Of course, this won't help if the flight you're looking for is a new service that hasn't yet begun, or if a particular airline pair is set to begin a code-share arrangement in the future.
Notice that even if the same flight runs every day of the week, it does not necessarily have the same code-share partners every day. For example, looking up the above flight one day earlier (Dec-03-2015), we see that it lists only LH, not LX or CA. (I imagine that a marketing airline might choose to share another carrier's flight only if they have a flight of their own connecting to it on that particular day.)
As a slight alternative, you can choose "By Route" in the Flight Status search box and then enter departure and arrival airports to get a list of flights operating that route, including code-shares. Again, it doesn't let you view flights more than ~3 days ahead, but you can see what airlines run that route by checking a few days around the current date.