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It's worth checking with your credit card provider, to see what they offer. Some providers can arrange for a replacement card to be sent out to you / picked up from somewhere suitable, and may also be able to arrange an emergency cash advance.
American Express are one such company, and seem pretty good humoured about it:
Was it the friendly stranger in Amsterdam? The roller-coaster in Rochester? Who knows. Maybe you’ll find it behind your desk five years from now.
Doesn’t matter what happened. You’ll get a new Card as quickly as we can manage it. Almost always within 48 hours.
And for another card of theirs:
We will issue a replacement Card usually within 24hours. If you are travelling abroad and wish to have a Card sent to you, we can arrange for a replacement Card to be waiting for you at the nearest American Express Travel Service Location or to be delivered to you in person*.
There's this FlyerTalk thread on experiences of using the service, which includes people saying they've had emergency 60 day cards created for them by Amex Travel offices in under 2 hours, and others who've had their replacement card hand delivered to their hotel! (Exact details will depend on what sort of Amex you have and from what country, so give them a call to check what your card has)