It is extremely difficult to do what you want to do. It is not impossible but the bureaucracy is going to be a nightmare. In China, if an official has the power to grant you a licence, it does not mean he will grant that licence. Each city, or even each police district will have its own rules. Or more likely, when faced with a new situation and novel request, just make up the rules on the spot.
If the official doesn't know the rules, he won't go and look them up. Instead he will just say, "No." It is easier, and he won't lose face, for him to just say no and then check the rules later. Many rules however, can be side stepped if your have the right contacts and friends in the country.
I would strongly suggest you try to buy a second vehicle for the Chinese leg of your trip and sell it when you finish or try to rent a car. There are now some car rental firms operating in China and they will also help you with licences.
I have been driving in China for 3 years now, living here for 7 years. You can't use your EU licence in China. Nor can you use an International Licence. You must get a Chinese licence.
In a large city like Beijing or Shanghai, you can reasonably easily get your EU licence converted to a temporary 3 month licence by just paying a small fee. In other cities, you might have trouble convincing the local police office that such licences exist.
It is possible to get a full Chinese licence under certain conditions. These will vary form city to city. My own city police insisted that I must have a residence permit and complete the full test - in Chinese - before they gave me the licence. Other cities might only ask you to do the written part of the test and some even have the test translated into many languages so you can do it in your native tongue. Luckily for me, I had some contacts in the police and I managed to convince the local testing centre to just do the medical and written test. I still had to do it in Chinese only though as the police officer said if I couldn't do that then how would I read the street signs and that anyway their computer system only had Chinese installed.
Outside of Beijing and Shanghai, it is very unlikely that the traffic police department officers will speak English. You will therefore need to find a guide or translator to help you through the process of getting licences.
My suggestion would be to fly to Beijing first and get the licences shorted there. Beijing has more foreign residents and so the police there will understand what needs done and be prepared to help you. You can also spend some time making contacts that could help you if you have some issues on route. After that, fly back home and start your journey.