You can use an OV-chipkaart (personal or anonymous) to travel on trains in the Netherlands but you will need to activate it at a NS vending machine and to have at least €20 credit (boarding fee) when getting on the train. It's fine to go from Schiphol to the centre since you can probably use up the remaining credit during your stay in Amsterdam but it's a bit of a hassle on the way back if you don't plan to come back to the Netherlands (from Amsterdam CS to Schiphol, the fare is only €4 so that's €16 remaining on the card, plus the €7.5 to buy it in the first place, that's €23.5 on top of the actual fare to be able to use the card).
However, you cannot use the trains with a day pass from GVB (if that's the 24-hour card you mentioned in the comments). For a one-time visit, the best option is therefore to buy a paper ticket (or, soon, a disposable single-trip OV-chipkaart) to go back to the airport.
PS: There is also something called a Dagkaart that can be loaded on a regular OV-chipkaart but that's something else entirely. You get unlimited train travel on the NS network for one day for €50.80 (second class).